A bunion, also known by its medical name hallux abductovalgus, is foot condition in which your big toe points toward your second toe, causing a bump or prominence to develop on the inside edge of your big toe and first metatarsal bone. Your first metatarsal bone is the long bone located directly behind your big toe, in your mid-foot. A bunion will cause your forefoot to appear wider because the base of your big toe now points away from your foot instead of pointing straight ahead.
Bunions are caused by a combination of factors, including a familial predisposition, and wearing high-heeled shoes that are tight and narrow at the front. Most bunions occur in women. Sometimes other foot problems accompany bunions, including calluses and hammertoes (angling downward of the lesser toes).
The most common symptoms associated with this condition are pain on the side of the foot just behind the great toe. A red painful bump is usually present. Pain is usually brought on with walking or sports. Shoes don't cause bunions but will typically aggravate them. Stiff leather shoes or shoes with a tapered toe box are the prime offenders. This is why bunion pain is most common in women whose shoes have a pointed toe box. The bunion site will often be slightly swollen and red from the constant rubbing and irritation of a shoe. Occasionally, corns can develop between the 1st and 2nd toe from the pressure the toes rubbing against each other.
Your family doctor or chiropodist /podiatrist can identify a bunion simply by examining your foot. During the exam, your big toe will be moved up and down to determine if your range of motion is limited. You will be examined for signs of redness or swelling and be questioned about your history of pain. A foot x-ray can show an abnormal angle between the big toe and the foot. In some cases, arthritis may also be seen. A X-ray of your foot may help identify the cause of the bunion and rate its severity.
Non Surgical Treatment
Custom orthoses or over-the-counter insoles to aid big toe joint function, help control over-pronation and maintain proper alignment of the bones in the feet. Properly sized, supportive footwear that are torsionally stable (can?t be folded or twisted easily) and that feature a good ?rocker profile? (curved from the ball to tips of the toes) help to reduce stress on the joint when walking. Footwear modifications to expand the area of the shoe surrounding the bunion to relieve pressure. Physical therapy modalities include rest, icing and massage. Injections, surgery and other treatment options, please consult your medical doctor for information and/or referral to a podiatrist or other foot and ankle specialist.
Surgery isn't recommended unless a bunion causes you frequent pain. A bunionectomy, like other types of surgery, is not without risk. Additionally, you may still have pain or you could develop a new bunion in your big toe joint after surgery. Consider trying conservative treatment before having a bunionectomy.If you have an underlying mechanical fault,surgery will only correct the aesthetical nature of your bunion for a short period.So therefore surgery is not recommended.